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Town of Lebanon
State: ME
County: York


Salmon Falls Watershed

Sacapee Pond sits in a marsh area west of Emery Mills Road. It is surrounded by shrub wetlands and pine forest. There is no development near the 2.5 acre pond and no road access. The outlet of Sacapee Pond runs out of the southern end and flows south to join the Little River at a farm on Hebo Hybo Road.

Nisbitt Pond is located between Milton Mills Road and Old Milton Mills Road. A few houses are adjacent to this 5 acre pond which sits in the middle of a small forested wetland. Nisbitt Pond empties into a small brook that runs south along Milton Mills Road until it joins Bog Brook near the power line right of way on Depot Road.

Bog Brook originates in a wetland area east of center road in northern Lebanon. It flows through a heath, parallel to Bog Road, until it crosses Heath Road and turns east along a power line right of way. The brook runs through a 1.5 mile forested area, encountering minimal development until it crosses Route 202 at a narrow bridge. It then meanders through a small marsh area, past a few homes and a junk car lot. Bog Brook crosses Little River Road and gathers water from a large wetland before crossing Little River Road and converging with the Little River.

The Lebanon and Berwick border runs through Long Swamp east of Long Swamp Road. It is a mix of forested and shrub wetland approximately 1.25 miles long with a few dozen homes around the Lebanon side.

The Little River flows into Lebanon from Sanford one mile north of Route 202. It flows north through a wetland along Smith Road and then makes a u-turn and runs south along Upper Middle Road. As it heads south the river passes numerous houses, first along Upper Middle Road and then Lower Middle Road. The Little River bends around a farm and then passes under a bridge on Little River Road. It then runs through a mile of forest and passes a large farm before entering North Berwick.

Keay Brook originates in a small forested wetland half a mile east of Upper Guinea Road. The brook begins to form a main channel after it flows through a culvert on Route 202. It runs past a large gravel pit and a farm and then crosses Lower Guinea Road. Keay Brook then flows through a half mile of forest and scattered development before entering a wide marsh surrounding Wallingford Pond.

Wallingford Pond is located just north of the Lebanon and Berwick border, at the end of Richardson Drive. This narrow 5 acre pond pools in the middle of a large shrub wetland. There are several houses near the western shore of the pond and a gravel pit to the south. Keay Brook runs through Wallingford Pond and drains out of its southern end into Berwick.

Great Brook originates in a small wetland between Gully Oven Road and Center Road. It flows south, growing larger as it is joined by several small streams near Shapleigh Road. It crosses the road and enters a dense coniferous forest. The brook runs out into a series of emergent and forested wetlands that extends from of Jim Grant Road south to Upper Guinea Road. After a 1.75 mile stretch of woodland, Great Brook flows past the airstrip in West Lebanon. It then enters an area of higher development with dozens of homes along West Lebanon and Hubbard Roads. A large farm borders the eastern bank and a gravel pit borders the west as it begins to meander and branch out into smaller streams that form a small delta as Great Brook converges with the Salmon Falls River.

The Salmon Falls River forms Lebanonís western border with New Hampshire. It flows into Northeast Pond, just west of Edgecomb Road. Northeast Pond is 684 acres in size and is home to 14 species of fish. There is continuous development along Sewell Shores Road which runs most of the length of the eastern shore. The Salmon Falls River flows out of Northeast Pond past a marina on New Bridge Road. Passing under the bridge, the river flows by more development along its banks and enters Milton Pond. Here the shoreline is less developed in places and a few sand bars jut out into the pond. At its southern end, Milton Pond narrows and the Salmon Falls River flows out and under a railroad bridge. The river then encounters several dams and begins to move quickly as it drops 150 feet in elevation over a 1.75 mile stretch of rapids. The Salmon Falls River then flows into 103 acre Spaulding Pond through a shallow marsh area at its northern end. The eastern shore is undeveloped along the northern stretch and becomes increasingly congested along Indian Lake Drive. The Salmon Falls River spills out of Spaulding Pond and over a dam on the eastern shore. Some of the river is diverted through a hydro electric facility and rejoins the main stem below Copps Bridge. The river passes through a marsh area along River Road and several small gravel pits until it passes through a power line right of way. The Lebanon shoreline is mostly undeveloped as it approaches Flatrock Bridge. It meanders past a farm and horse track as it approaches South Lebanon, where it meets increased development and passes under a bridge on Route 202. The river passes over a dam and then makes several wide turns as it is joined by Great Brook. The Salmon Falls River runs through an area of undeveloped coniferous forest and enters Berwick.

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Water District: none
District Website: none
Water Source: Private Wells
# Accts Serv: none
Other Towns: none
Sewer District: Septic
District Website: none
Receiving Waters: groundwater
# Accts Serv: N/A
Other Towns: none

Seal:town seal, click to enlarge
Population:5589 (U.S. Census Est. 2006)
Area:57.1 square miles

Lebanon was known as Tow-who in 1733 when it was first settled. It was incorporated in 1767 and became Lebanon. It is located on York County?s border with New Hampshire. Its original industry was farming but with the advent of the railroad which ran along the area that is now route 202, it became a bedroom community for both Sanford, Maine and Rochester, N.H.. Currently with easy access to Route 202 and Route16, the town supplies a workforce for areas reaching as far as Massachusetts and Portland, Maine. The town has approximately 33,000 acres. Lebanon is bounded on the West by Northeast Pond, Spaulding Pond and the Salmon Falls River. There are many small streams located within the town that are in the Salmon Falls River Watershed. These streams eventually drain into the Salmon Falls River. One of the most unique features of the town is located on Gully Oven Road. It is a rock formation said to have been an Indian encampment. It is has been preserved as a public park. The areas along the Salmon Falls River that are not already developed are protected under the Shoreland Zoning Ordinance. Similar to the rest of Southern Maine are we are experiencing a housing boom and losing the rural character that people are moving to our area for. We have a growth cap in place but are still experiencing growth every year.


The area of Lebanon was called Towwoh by the Newichawannook people, whose main village was further down the Salmon Falls River. It is believed that some families may have lived on the shores of Sacapee Pond.

The area was first settled it in 1743. Early settlement developed around the timber industry and as land was cleared farming began. At the Salmon Falls River and the Little River were water power sites for mills. Lebanon had 4 sawmills, 3 gristmills, a shingle mill, a wool carding mill and a tannery. Several mills were located along the Salmon Falls River as well as a few on the Little River.

The population of the town dropped between 1870 and 1880 from 1,953 to 1,601 reflecting a trend that occurred in York County at that time.

With the introduction of the railroad and the generation of hydro electricity people began to move into Lebanon again in the early 1900ís. Between 1970 and 2000 the population of Lebanon grew by an average of 38%, from 1,983 to 5,083.

The Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve at Laudholm Farm, Wells, Maine Copyright 2006 All rights reserved. Collaboration with NOAA CSC, Charleston SC